Food systems contribute over 34% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, ultimately releasing over 16,900 megatonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent.
Agricultural production, including emissions that are indirectly associated with land-cover change, contributes over 80% of food system emissions, with major regional variation.
The impacts of climate change on food systems are widespread, complex, geographically and temporally variable, as well as profoundly influenced by socioeconomic conditions.
Historical statistical studies and assessments have proven that climate change drastically affects agricultural yields, earnings, food prices, delivery reliability, food quality, as well as overall food safety.
This ultimately means that low-income producers and consumers of food are more vulnerable to climate change owing to their comparatively limited ability to invest in adaptive institutions and technologies under increasing climatic risks.
Some synergies among food security and mitigation are feasible, but overall interventions, like agricultural intensification or reductions in waste, will require extremely rigorous management to distribute costs and benefits effectively.